Description and Brand Names of Zide – Hydrochlorothiazide (Oral Route)
US Brand Name
- Aquazide H
Hydrochlorothiazide is used alone or together with other medicines to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). High blood pressure adds to the workload of the heart and arteries. If it continues for a long time, the heart and arteries may not function properly. This can damage the blood vessels of the brain, heart, and kidneys, resulting in a stroke, heart failure, or kidney failure. High blood pressure may also increase the risk of heart attacks. These problems may be less likely to occur if blood pressure is controlled.
Hydrochlorothiazide is also used to treat fluid retention (edema) that is caused by congestive heart failure, severe liver disease (cirrhosis), kidney disease, or treatment with a steroid or hormone medicine.
Hydrochlorothiazide is a thiazide diuretic (water pill). It is used to help reduce the amount of water in the body by increasing the flow of urine. It may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor.
This medicine is available only with your doctor’s prescription.
This product is available in the following dosage forms:
Before Using Zide – Hydrochlorothiazide (Oral Route)
In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For this medicine, the following should be considered:
Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to this medicine or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully.
Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of hydrochlorothiazide capsules or tablets in the pediatric population. Safety and efficacy have not been established.
Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated geriatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of hydrochlorothiazide capsules in the elderly. However, elderly patients are more likely to have age-related liver, kidney, or heart problems, which may require an adjustment in the dose for patients receiving hydrochlorothiazide capsules.
No information is available on the relationship of age to the effects of hydrochlorothiazide tablets in geriatric patients. However, elderly patients are more likely to have age-related liver, kidney, or heart problems, which may require an adjustment in the dose for patients receiving hydrochlorothiazide tablets.
Studies suggest that this medication may alter milk production or composition. If an alternative to this medication is not prescribed, you should monitor the infant for side effects and adequate milk intake.
Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are taking this medicine, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.
Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is not recommended. Your doctor may decide not to treat you with this medication or change some of the other medicines you take.
Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be required in some cases. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.
- Arsenic Trioxide
Using this medicine with any of the following medicines may cause an increased risk of certain side effects, but using both drugs may be the best treatment for you. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.
- Amtolmetin Guacil
- Choline Salicylate
- Enalapril Maleate
- Flufenamic Acid
- Ibuprofen Lysine
- Mefenamic Acid
- Niflumic Acid
- Salicylic Acid
- Sodium Salicylate
- Tiaprofenic Acid
- Tolfenamic Acid
Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or eating certain types of food since interactions may occur. Using alcohol or tobacco with certain medicines may also cause interactions to occur. Discuss with your healthcare professional the use of your medicine with food, alcohol, or tobacco.
Other Medical Problems
The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of this medicine. Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially:
- Anuria (not able to urinate) or
- Sulfa drug allergy (e.g., sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, BactrimÂ®, SeptraÂ®) – Should not be used in patients with these conditions.
- Asthma or
- Diabetes or
- Electrolyte imbalance (e.g., hypercalcemia, hypokalemia, hyponatremia, hypomagnesemia) or
- Gout or
- Hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol in the blood) or
- Hyperuricemia (high uric acid in the blood) or
- Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) or
- Liver disease or
- Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) – Use with caution. May make these conditions worse.
- Kidney disease – Use with caution. The effects may be increased because of slower removal of the medicine from the body.
Proper Use of Zide – Hydrochlorothiazide (Oral Route)
In addition to the use of this medicine, treatment for your high blood pressure may include weight control and changes in the types of foods you eat, especially foods high in sodium (salt) or potassium. Your doctor will tell you which of these are most important for you. You should check with your doctor before changing your diet.
Many patients who have high blood pressure will not notice any signs of the problem. In fact, many may feel normal. It is very important that you take your medicine exactly as directed and that you keep your appointments with your doctor even if you feel well.
Remember that this medicine will not cure your high blood pressure, but it does help control it. You must continue to receive it as directed if you expect to lower your blood pressure and keep it down. You may have to take high blood pressure medicine for the rest of your life. If high blood pressure is not treated, it can cause serious problems such as heart failure, blood vessel disease, stroke, or kidney disease.
The dose of this medicine will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor’s orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of this medicine. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.
The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.
For fluid retention (edema):
For oral dosage form (tablets):
- Adults – The usual dose is 25 to 100 milligrams (mg) daily as a single or divided dose. Your doctor may want you to take this dose every other day or on 3 to 5 days each week.
- Children – Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor.
- For oral dosage form (tablets):
For high blood pressure:
For oral dosage form (capsule):
- Adults – At first, 12. 5 milligrams (mg) or one capsule once a day. Your doctor may want you to take this alone or together with other blood pressure medicines. Your doctor may increase your dose as needed. However, the dose is usually not more than 50 mg per day.
- Children – Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
For oral dosage form (tablets):
- Adults – At first, 25 milligrams (mg) once a day. Your doctor may increase your dose as needed and may be taken as a single dose or divided into two doses.
- Children – Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor.
- For oral dosage form (capsule):
If you miss a dose of this medicine, take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.
Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing.
Keep out of the reach of children.
Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.
Ask your healthcare professional how you should dispose of any medicine you do not use.
It is very important that your doctor check your progress at regular visits to make sure this medicine is working properly. Blood and urine tests may be needed to check for unwanted effects.
Check with your doctor right away if you have any of the following symptoms while taking this medicine: convulsions or seizures; decreased urine; drowsiness; dry mouth; excessive thirst; increased heart rate or pulse; muscle pains or cramps; nausea or vomiting; or unusual tiredness or weakness. These may be symptoms of a condition called hypokalemia or potassium loss.
Stop using this medicine and check with your doctor immediately if you have blurred vision, difficulty in reading, eye pain, or any other change in vision during or after treatment. This could be a sign of a serious eye problem. Your doctor will want you to have your eyes checked by an ophthalmologist (eye doctor).
This medicine may cause some people to become dizzy. Do not drive, use machines, or do anything else that could be dangerous if you are dizzy or not alert.
Drinking alcoholic beverages may also make the dizziness worse. While you are taking this medicine, be careful to limit the amount of alcohol you drink.
Before you have any medical tests, tell the medical doctor in charge that you are taking this medicine. The results of some tests (e.g., tests for parathyroid function) may be affected by this medicine.
Do not take other medicines unless they have been discussed with your doctor. This includes over-the-counter (nonprescription) medicines for appetite control, asthma, colds, cough, hay fever, or sinus problems, since they may tend to increase your blood pressure.
Side Effects of Zide – Hydrochlorothiazide (Oral Route)
Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.
Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur:
Incidence not known
- Abdominal or stomach pain
- back, leg, or stomach pains
- black, tarry stools
- bleeding gums
- blistering, peeling, or loosening of the skin
- blood in the urine or stools
- bloody urine
- blue lips and fingernails
- blurred vision
- burning, crawling, itching, numbness, prickling, “pins and needles”, or tingling feelings
- chest pain
- clay-colored stools
- cloudy urine
- cold sweats
- cough or hoarseness
- coughing that sometimes produces a pink frothy sputum
- coughing up blood
- cracks in the skin
- darkened urine
- decrease in urine output or decrease in urine-concentrating ability
- decreased frequency or amount of urine
- difficult, fast, or noisy breathing, sometimes with wheezing
- difficulty with breathing
- difficulty with swallowing
- dizziness, faintness, or lightheadedness when getting up from a lying or sitting position
- dry mouth
- fast or irregular heartbeat
- flushed, dry skin
- fruit-like breath odor
- general body swelling
- general feeling of discomfort or illness
- general feeling of tiredness or weakness
- greatly decreased frequency of urination or amount of urine
- increased blood pressure
- increased hunger
- increased sweating
- increased thirst
- increased urination
- joint pain, stiffness, or swelling
- loss of appetite
- loss of heat from the body
- lower back or side pain
- muscle cramps or pain
- nausea or vomiting
- numbness, tingling, pain, or weakness in the hands or feet
- pain in the joints or muscles
- painful or difficult urination
- pains in the stomach, side, or abdomen, possibly radiating to the back
- pale skin
- pinpoint red spots on the skin
- puffiness or swelling of the eyelids or around the eyes, face, lips, or tongue
- red, irritated eyes
- red skin lesions, often with a purple center
- red, swollen skin
- redness, soreness, or itching skin
- scaly skin
- shortness of breath
- sore throat
- sores, ulcers, or white spots on the lips or in the mouth
- sores, welting, or blisters
- sugar in the urine
- swelling of the face, fingers, legs, ankles, feet, or lower legs
- swollen or painful glands
- tenderness of salivary glands
- thickening of bronchial secretions
- tightness in the chest
- troubled breathing
- unpleasant breath odor
- unusual bleeding or bruising
- unusual tiredness or weakness
- unusual weight loss
- vomiting of blood
- weakness and heaviness of the legs
- weight gain
- yellow eyes or skin
Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:
Incidence not known
- decreased interest in sexual intercourse
- difficulty having a bowel movement (stool)
- feeling of constant movement of self or surroundings
- hair loss or thinning of the hair
- inability to have or keep an erection
- increased sensitivity of the skin to sunlight
- loss in sexual ability, desire, drive, or performance
- muscle spasm
- pinpoint red or purple spots on the skin
- redness or other discoloration of the skin
- sensation of spinning
- severe sunburn
Other side effects not listed may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your healthcare professional.
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.